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The creation of Pakistan and its path towards disintegration

By Syed Atiq ul Hassan - posted Tuesday, 26 September 2023

The creation of Pakistan was the result of compelling circumstances faced by the British Empire, primarily due to the unyielding legal arguments presented by the founder of Pakistan, Muhammad Ali Jinnah. The British found themselves unable to counter Jinnah's case for Pakistan, largely because millions of Muslims in India, led by Jinnah, were ready to make significant sacrifices for their cause. This compelled the British to accept the idea of an independent Muslim state. It was a strategic move for the British, who, after World War II, had lost much of their economic and defense power and could no longer sustain their hold over occupied territories.

Through a strategic alliance with the All India Muslim League and the Indian National Congress, the British held elections in 1946. Pakistan emerged as an independent nation on August 14, 1947, with both East and West Pakistan forming its initial boundaries. However, it's important to note that neither the British nor the Indian National Congress were enthusiastic about the existence of Pakistan. They were, in essence, forced into accepting it due to the prevailing circumstances and the determined struggle of the Muslims.

From a British imperialist perspective, Pakistan was created as a fragmented entity within India, with the intention of ensuring that it would never fully flourish as an independent state. The British understood that the life expectancy of Pakistan's founder, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, was limited due to his deteriorating health. As a part of their strategy, Jinnah was transferred to a hill station in the city of Quetta ostensibly for health reasons, but, to keep him away from active involvement in state affairs. Tragically, many close associates of Jinnah also preferred his disengagement from government affairs, which ultimately led to a deviation from the original goals and objectives of Pakistan. This deviation was particularly notable among the Chaudharys, landlords, and tribal leaders in West Pakistan, whose interests conflicted with the broader vision of the nation.


Regrettably, within a year of Pakistan's creation, Muhammad Ali Jinnah passed away, leaving the second-tier leadership of the Muslim League ill-prepared to navigate the cunning and deceptive policies of the British.

In the early days of Pakistan, the British offered assistance in establishing the Pakistani military, given the absence of a robust defense infrastructure. General Frank Messervy, a British military officer, assumed the position of Pakistan's first Army Chief on August 15, 1947. Under his leadership, the foundations of Pakistan's defense policy were laid. It's worth noting that the approval of promotions to the rank of General was, and remains to this day, sought from the United Kingdom and USA-an undisclosed practice.

As the influence of British imperialism waned globally, the United States assumed the role that Great Britain had played. Their approach towards Pakistan remained consistent. Over the next three years, General Messervy handpicked military officers who were loyal to the United Kingdom, with General Ayub Khan emerging as one of the prominent figures. In 1951, General Messervy passed the baton to General Ayub Khan, who would later become Pakistan's first defense minister and, in 1958, declare the country's first Martial Law.

Today, it's evident not only to Pakistanis but to the world that Pakistan is under military influence. When the military leadership disagreed with the legitimate demands of East Pakistan and the political leaders, including Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, deviated from their policies, they placed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, a prominent figure from West Pakistan with ties to General Ayub Khan and then with General Yahya Khan, in charge of the separation of East Pakistan. This move convinced the observers and historians that Pakistan is not a democratic independent Pakistan but an army State. The defense of Pakistan remained under the influence of Britain and the USA. British generals established Pakistan's defense intelligence agency, ISI, in 1948, shaping its core policies that persist to this day.

The history of Pakistan reveals that ISI's primary goal is to safeguard the interests of the USA and Britain in Pakistan, even at the expense of the lives of patriotic Pakistanis.

In the context of historical facts, Pakistan was founded by Muhammad Ali Jinnah's leadership and the Muslim League's banner. However, it's a reality that Pakistan never achieved complete independence from Britain. The influence and control of Great Britain persist today, bolstered by the United States' growing influence. Pakistani generals and ISI chiefs cannot take any action against the wishes of Britain and the USA.


The strength of Pakistan's military, including its army, air force, and navy, is undeniable. However, some critics argue that these forces operate under the influence of the United Kingdom and the United States. They contend that Pakistan's foreign policy is closely aligned with the interests of these Western powers.

There is a perception that Pakistan's democracy is flawed. Critics suggest that the military plays a significant role in selecting and influencing civil politicians and political parties, leading to a lack of genuine democratic governance. They argue that the military often receives guidance from Washington and London.

In April 2022, the democratic government was removed through a fraud no-confidence vote in the parliament, and relatively unknown political figures were brought into power. Critics believe that this move was orchestrated to give the military greater control over the political landscape on the instruction of the USA. The current Cipher scandal is clear evidence of regime change in Pakistan and throwing Imran Khan behind bars under more than 150 fake charges.

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About the Author

Syed Atiq ul Hassan, is senior journalist, writer, media analyst and foreign correspondent for foreign media agencies in Australia. His email is

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